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Continuous Query, CQ

About 7 min

Continuous Query, CQ

We can create, drop a CQ, and query all registered CQ configuration information through SQL statements.

Note that the current distributed version of IoTDB does not support continuous queries. Please stay tuned.

SQL statements

Create CQ

Syntax

CREATE (CONTINUOUS QUERY | CQ) <cq_id> 
[RESAMPLE EVERY <every_interval> FOR <for_interval>]
BEGIN
SELECT <function>(<path_suffix>) INTO <full_path> | <node_name>
FROM <path_prefix>
GROUP BY time(<group_by_interval>) [, level = <level>]
END
  • <cq_id> specifies the globally unique id of CQ.

  • <every_interval> specifies the query execution time interval. We currently support the units of ns, us, ms, s, m, h, d, w, and its value should not be lower than the minimum threshold configured by the user.

  • <for_interval> specifies the time range of each query as [now()-<for_interval>, now()). We currently support the units of ns, us, ms, s, m, h, d, w.

  • <execution_boundary_time> is a date that represents the start time of the first window.

    • <execution_boundary_time> can be earlier than, equals to, later than current time.
    • This parameter is optional. If not specified, it is equivalent to BOUNDARY now().
    • The end time of the first window is <execution_boundary_time> + <for_interval>.
    • The start time of the i (1 <= i)th window is <execution_boundary_time> + <for_interval> + (i - 1) * <every_interval>.
    • The end time of the i (1 <= i)th window is<execution_boundary_time> + <for_interval> + i * <every_interval>.
    • If current time is earlier than or equal to the end time of the first window, then the first execution moment of the continuous query is the end time of the first window.
    • If current time is later than the end time of the first window, then the first execution moment of the continuous query is the end time of the first window whose end time is later than or equal to the current time .
    • The query time range at each execution moment is [now() - <for_interval>, now()).
  • <function> specifies the aggregate function.

  • <path_prefix> and <path_suffix> are spliced into the queried time series path.

  • <full_path> or <node_name> specifies the result time series path.

  • <group_by_interval> specifies the time grouping length. We currently support the units of ns, us, ms, s, m, h, d, w, mo, y.

  • <level> refers to grouping according to the <level> level of the time series, and grouping the aggregation result of time series with the same name below the <level> level. For the specific semantics of the Group By Level statement and the definition of <level>, see aggregation-by-level

Note:

  • <for_interval>,<every_interval> can optionally be specified. If the user does not specify one of them, the value of the unspecified item will be processed equal to <group_by_interval>.
    • The values of <every_interval>, <for_interval> and <group_by_interval> should all be greater than 0.
    • The value of <group_by_interval> should be less than the value of <for_interval>, otherwise the system will process the value equal to <for_interval>.
    • The user should specify the appropriate <for_interval> and <every_interval> according to actual needs.
      • If <for_interval> is greater than <every_interval>, there will be partial data overlap in each query window. This configuration is not recommended from the perspective of query performance.
      • If <for_interval> is less than <every_interval>, there may be uncovered data between each query window.
  • For the result series path
    • The user can choose to specify <full_path>, which is the complete time series path starting with root. The user can use the ${x} variable in the path to represent the node name of level = x in the original time series. x should be greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to the value of <level>
      (If level is not specified, it should be less than or equal to the level, i.e. length, of <path_prefix>).
    • The user can also specify only <node_name>, which is the last node name of the result time series path.
      • If the user specifies <level> = l, the result time series path generated by the system is root.${1}. ... .${l}.<node_name>
      • If the user does not specify <level>, let the maximum level of the original time series be L,
        Then the result time series path generated by the system is root.${1}. ... .${L-1}.<node_name>.

Examples

Original Data
+-----------------------------+-----+-------------+--------+--------+-----------+----+----------+
|                   timeseries|alias|storage group|dataType|encoding|compression|tags|attributes|
+-----------------------------+-----+-------------+--------+--------+-----------+----+----------+
|root.ln.wf02.wt02.temperature| null|      root.ln|   FLOAT| GORILLA|     SNAPPY|null|      null|
|root.ln.wf02.wt01.temperature| null|      root.ln|   FLOAT| GORILLA|     SNAPPY|null|      null|
|root.ln.wf01.wt02.temperature| null|      root.ln|   FLOAT| GORILLA|     SNAPPY|null|      null|
|root.ln.wf01.wt01.temperature| null|      root.ln|   FLOAT| GORILLA|     SNAPPY|null|      null|
+-----------------------------+-----+-------------+--------+--------+-----------+----+----------+
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
|                         Time|root.ln.wf02.wt02.temperature|root.ln.wf02.wt01.temperature|root.ln.wf01.wt02.temperature|root.ln.wf01.wt01.temperature|
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
|2021-05-11T22:18:14.598+08:00|                        121.0|                         72.0|                        183.0|                        115.0|
|2021-05-11T22:18:19.941+08:00|                          0.0|                         68.0|                         68.0|                        103.0|
|2021-05-11T22:18:24.949+08:00|                        122.0|                         45.0|                         11.0|                         14.0|
|2021-05-11T22:18:29.967+08:00|                         47.0|                         14.0|                         59.0|                        181.0|
|2021-05-11T22:18:34.979+08:00|                        182.0|                        113.0|                         29.0|                        180.0|
|2021-05-11T22:18:39.990+08:00|                         42.0|                         11.0|                         52.0|                         19.0|
|2021-05-11T22:18:44.995+08:00|                         78.0|                         38.0|                        123.0|                         52.0|
|2021-05-11T22:18:49.999+08:00|                        137.0|                        172.0|                        135.0|                        193.0|
|2021-05-11T22:18:55.003+08:00|                         16.0|                        124.0|                        183.0|                         18.0|
+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
Result time series path configuration example

For the above original time series, if the user specifies that the query aggregation level is 2, the aggregation function is avg,
The user can specify only the last node name of the generated time series in the INTO clause. If the user specifies it as temperature_avg, the full path generated by the system will be root.${1}.${2}.temperature_avg .
The user can also specify the full path in the INTO clause, and the user can specify it as root.${1}.${2}.temperature_avg, root.ln_cq.${2}.temperature_avg, root.${1}_cq.${2}.temperature_avg, root.${1}.${2}_cq.temperature_avg etc.,
It can also be specified as root.${2}.${1}.temperature_avg and others as needed.
It should be noted that the x in ${x} should be greater than or equal to 1 and less than or equal to the value of <level>
(If <level> is not specified, it should be less than or equal to the length of <path_prefix>). In the above example, x should be less than or equal to 2.

Create cq1
CREATE CONTINUOUS QUERY cq1 
BEGIN 
  SELECT max_value(temperature) 
  INTO temperature_max 
  FROM root.ln.*.* 
  GROUP BY time(10s) 
END

Query the maximum value of root.ln.*.*.temperature in the previous 10s every 10s (the results are grouped by 10s),
and the results will be written to root.${1}.${2}.${3}.temperature_max,
As a result, 4 new time series will be generated.

+---------------------------------+-----+-------------+--------+--------+-----------+----+----------+
|                       timeseries|alias|storage group|dataType|encoding|compression|tags|attributes|
+---------------------------------+-----+-------------+--------+--------+-----------+----+----------+
|root.ln.wf02.wt02.temperature_max| null|      root.ln|   FLOAT| GORILLA|     SNAPPY|null|      null|
|root.ln.wf02.wt01.temperature_max| null|      root.ln|   FLOAT| GORILLA|     SNAPPY|null|      null|
|root.ln.wf01.wt02.temperature_max| null|      root.ln|   FLOAT| GORILLA|     SNAPPY|null|      null|
|root.ln.wf01.wt01.temperature_max| null|      root.ln|   FLOAT| GORILLA|     SNAPPY|null|      null|
+---------------------------------+-----+-------------+--------+--------+-----------+----+----------+
+-----------------------------+---------------------------------+---------------------------------+---------------------------------+---------------------------------+
|                         Time|root.ln.wf02.wt02.temperature_max|root.ln.wf02.wt01.temperature_max|root.ln.wf01.wt02.temperature_max|root.ln.wf01.wt01.temperature_max|
+-----------------------------+---------------------------------+---------------------------------+---------------------------------+---------------------------------+
|2021-05-11T22:18:16.964+08:00|                            122.0|                             68.0|                             68.0|                            103.0|
|2021-05-11T22:18:26.964+08:00|                            182.0|                            113.0|                             59.0|                            181.0|
|2021-05-11T22:18:36.964+08:00|                             78.0|                             38.0|                            123.0|                             52.0|
|2021-05-11T22:18:46.964+08:00|                            137.0|                            172.0|                            183.0|                            193.0|
+-----------------------------+---------------------------------+---------------------------------+---------------------------------+---------------------------------+
Create cq2
CREATE CONTINUOUS QUERY cq2 
RESAMPLE EVERY 20s FOR 20s 
BEGIN 
  SELECT avg(temperature) 
  INTO temperature_avg 
  FROM root.ln.*.* 
  GROUP BY time(10s), level=2 
END

Query the average value of root.ln.*.*.temperature in the previous 20s every 20s (the results are grouped by 10s),
and the results will be written to root.${1}.${2}.temperature_avg,
As a result, 2 new time series will be generated.
Among them, root.ln.wf02.temperature_avg is generated by the aggregation calculation of root.ln.wf02.wt02.temperature and root.ln.wf02.wt01.temperature,
and root.ln.wf01.temperature_avg is generated by the aggregation calculation of root.ln.wf01.wt02.temperature and root.ln.wf01.wt01.temperature.

+----------------------------+-----+-------------+--------+--------+-----------+----+----------+
|                  timeseries|alias|storage group|dataType|encoding|compression|tags|attributes|
+----------------------------+-----+-------------+--------+--------+-----------+----+----------+
|root.ln.wf02.temperature_avg| null|      root.ln|  DOUBLE| GORILLA|     SNAPPY|null|      null|
|root.ln.wf01.temperature_avg| null|      root.ln|  DOUBLE| GORILLA|     SNAPPY|null|      null|
+----------------------------+-----+-------------+--------+--------+-----------+----+----------+
+-----------------------------+----------------------------+----------------------------+
|                         Time|root.ln.wf02.temperature_avg|root.ln.wf01.temperature_avg|
+-----------------------------+----------------------------+----------------------------+
|2021-05-11T22:18:16.969+08:00|                       58.75|                        49.0|
|2021-05-11T22:18:26.969+08:00|                        89.0|                      112.25|
|2021-05-11T22:18:36.969+08:00|                       42.25|                        61.5|
|2021-05-11T22:18:46.969+08:00|                      112.25|                      132.25|
+-----------------------------+----------------------------+----------------------------+
Create cq3
CREATE CONTINUOUS QUERY cq3 
RESAMPLE EVERY 20s FOR 20s 
BEGIN 
  SELECT avg(temperature) 
  INTO root.ln_cq.${2}.temperature_avg 
  FROM root.ln.*.* 
  GROUP BY time(10s), level=2 
END

The query mode is the same as cq2,
and the results will be written to root.ln_cq.${2}.temperature_avg.
As a result, 2 new time series will be generated.
Among them, root.ln_cq.wf02.temperature_avg is generated by the aggregation calculation of root.ln.wf02.wt02.temperature and root.ln.wf02.wt01.temperature,
and root.ln_cq.wf01.temperature_avg is generated by the aggregation calculation of root.ln.wf01.wt02.temperature and root.ln.wf01.wt01.temperature.

+-------------------------------+-----+-------------+--------+--------+-----------+----+----------+
|                     timeseries|alias|storage group|dataType|encoding|compression|tags|attributes|
+-------------------------------+-----+-------------+--------+--------+-----------+----+----------+
|root.ln_cq.wf02.temperature_avg| null|   root.ln_cq|  DOUBLE| GORILLA|     SNAPPY|null|      null|
|root.ln_cq.wf01.temperature_avg| null|   root.ln_cq|  DOUBLE| GORILLA|     SNAPPY|null|      null|
+-------------------------------+-----+-------------+--------+--------+-----------+----+----------+
+-----------------------------+-------------------------------+-------------------------------+
|                         Time|root.ln_cq.wf02.temperature_avg|root.ln_cq.wf01.temperature_avg|
+-----------------------------+-------------------------------+-------------------------------+
|2021-05-11T22:18:16.971+08:00|                          58.75|                           49.0|
|2021-05-11T22:18:26.971+08:00|                           89.0|                         112.25|
|2021-05-11T22:18:36.971+08:00|                          42.25|                           61.5|
|2021-05-11T22:18:46.971+08:00|                         112.25|                         132.25|
+-----------------------------+-------------------------------+-------------------------------+
创建 cq4
CREATE CONTINUOUS QUERY cq4 
RESAMPLE EVERY 20s FOR 20s BOUNDARY 2022-01-14T23:00:00.000+08:00 
BEGIN 
  SELECT avg(temperature) 
  INTO root.ln_cq.${2}.temperature_avg 
  FROM root.ln.*.* GROUP BY time(10s), level=2 
END

This example is almost identical to creating cq3. The difference is that in this example the user specified BOUNDARY 2022-01-14T23:00:00.000+08:00 .

Note that the first execution time of this CQ is later than the time in the example, so 2022-01-14T23:00:20.000+08:00 is the first execution time. Recursively, 2022-01-14T23:00:40.000+08:00 is the second execution moment, 2022-01-14T23:01:00.000+08:00 is the third execution moment...

The SQL statement executed at the first execution moment is select avg(temperature) from root.ln.*.* group by ([2022-01-14T23:00:00.000+08:00, 2022-01-14T23:00: 20.000+08:00), 10s), level = 2.

The SQL statement executed at the second execution moment is select avg(temperature) from root.ln.*.* group by ([2022-01-14T23:00:20.000+08:00, 2022-01-14T23:00: 40.000+08:00), 10s), level = 2.

The SQL statement executed at the third execution moment is select avg(temperature) from root.ln.*.* group by ([2022-01-14T23:00:40.000+08:00, 2022-01-14T23:01: 00.000+08:00), 10s), level = 2.

...

Show CQ Information

Syntax

SHOW (CONTINUOUS QUERIES | CQS) 

Example Result

+-------+--------------+------------+-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
|cq name|every interval|for interval|     boundary|                                                                               query sql|                        target path|
+-------+--------------+------------+-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+
|    cq1|         10000|       10000|1642166102238|     select max_value(temperature) from root.ln.*.* group by ([now() - 10s, now()), 10s)|root.${1}.${2}.${3}.temperature_max|
|    cq3|         20000|       20000|1642166118339|select avg(temperature) from root.ln.*.* group by ([now() - 20s, now()), 10s), level = 2|    root.ln_cq.${2}.temperature_avg|
|    cq2|         20000|       20000|1642166111493|select avg(temperature) from root.ln.*.* group by ([now() - 20s, now()), 10s), level = 2|     root.${1}.${2}.temperature_avg|
|    cq4|         20000|       20000|1642172400000|select avg(temperature) from root.ln.*.* group by ([now() - 20s, now()), 10s), level = 2|    root.ln_cq.${2}.temperature_avg|
+-------+--------------+------------+-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------+

Drop CQ

Syntax

DROP (CONTINUOUS QUERY | CQ) <cq_id> 

Example

DROP CONTINUOUS QUERY cq3
DROP CQ cq3

System Parameter Configuration

NameDescriptionData TypeDefault Value
continuous_query_execution_threadThe number of threads in the thread pool that executes continuous query tasksintmax(1, CPU core number / 2)
max_pending_continuous_query_tasksThe maximum number of continuous query tasks pending in queueint64
continuous_query_min_every_intervalThe minimum value of the continuous query execution time intervalduration1s

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